^ March 16, 1992 memo from Mariam Leder, NSF Assistant General Counsel to Steven Wolff, Division Director, NSF DNCRI (included at page 128 of Management of NSFNET, a transcript of the March 12, 1992 hearing before the Subcommittee on Science of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, Hon. Rick Boucher, subcommittee chairman, presiding)

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Until 1991, the Internet was restricted to use only "...for research and education in the sciences and engineering..."[1][2] and was used for email, telnet, FTP and USENET traffic—but only a tiny number of web pages. The World Wide Web protocols had only just been written[3][4] and not until the end of 1993 would there be a graphical web browser for Mac or Windows computers.[5] Even after there was some opening up of internet access, the situation was confused until 1995.[6]
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the organization that governs the rules and regulations for domain name registrations. ICANN requires, for various reasons including to determine ownership of a domain should a dispute transpire, that a publicly accessible database be maintained that contains the contact information of all domain registrants. In layman's terms this means your domain name will be searchable by anyone and those search results will include your full name, physical address and other contact information. In order to protect your privacy in this regard, Domain.com offers WHOIS Domain Privacy which then masks your information using our own and implements a procedure for you to control who is able to then gain access to your contact information via a WHOIS search. Whenever you buy a domain name, no matter what domain name registration service you use, you are subject to the same ICANN rules, for this reason it is important to use a reputable service who cares about your privacy. Domain.com always recommends enabling WHOIS Domain Privacy.

That said, not all web hosts offer email. WP Engine, for example, does not. In such instances, you must email accounts from a company other than your web host. GoDaddy, for instance, sells email packages starting at $3.49 per user, per month. That might sound like a hassle, and just one more thing to keep track of, but there are actually some webmasters who feel that separating your email hosting and web hosting services is smart. That way, one provider going offline won't completely bork your business.

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Ultimately, it is used to decrease hardware costs by condensing a failover cluster to a single machine. Thus decreasing costs dramatically while providing the same services. Server roles and features are generally designed to operate in isolation. For example, Windows Server 2019 requires a certificate authority and a domain controller to exist on independent servers with independent instances of windows server. This is because additional roles and features adds areas of potential failure as well as adding visible security risks (placing a certificate authority on a domain controller poses the potential for root access to the root certificate). This directly motivates demand for virtual private servers in order to retain conflicting server roles and features on a single hosting machine. Also, the advent of virtual machine encrypted networks decreases pass-through risks that might have otherwise discouraged VPS usage as a legitimate hosting server. 

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Since 2009, FatCow has been committed to purchasing Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) to offset its use of electricity; this year, the company will purchase enough RECs to offset its use of electricity by 200%. FatCow's commitment to the environment will prevent 999 metric tons of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere, this year alone; that's equivalent to planting 213 acres of trees or taking 196 cars off the road!
Every website on the internet has a unique IP address assigned to it, made up of a series of numbers. These numbers tell the domain name system (DNS) to locate the corresponding website. As we are humans and not computers, IP addresses are difficult to remember and so words are used instead. These words are known as the domain or URL. The DNS looks at the domain name and translates it into an IP address.
Whether you are looking for a personal website hosting plan or a business website hosting plan, HostGator is the perfect solution for you. Our powerful website hosting services will not only help you achieve your overall website goals, but will also provide you with the confidence you need in knowing that you are partnered with a reliable and secure website hosting platform.
Our WhoIs lookup is designed to help you perform a variety of whois lookup functions. WhoIs lets you perform a domain whois search, whois IP lookup and search the whois database for relevant information on domain registration and availability. This can help provide insight into a domain's history and additional information. Use WhoIs lookup anytime you want to perform a search to see who owns a domain name, how many pages from a site are listed with Google or even search WhoIs address listings for a website's owner.

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Shared hosting is web hosting in which the provider houses multiple sites on a single server. For example, Site A shares the same server with Site B, Site C, Site D, and Site E. The upside is that the multiple sites share the server cost, so shared web hosting is generally very inexpensive. In fact, you can find an option for less than $10 per month.
What really makes our service faster is our Turbo Servers option featuring up to 20X faster page loads compared to competing solutions. Our Turbo Servers feature a drop-in, speed enhanced Apache alternative, more resources per user and fewer users per server. Our Turbo Servers also offer a number of caching solutions that can be easily configured in our exclusive A2 Optimized tool. Caching solutions improve page performance by storing key pieces of your website in memory, instead of having to load each portion of your page each time your site is accessed.
Once you decide you price range, you need to consider how long you'll need web hosting. If it's a short-term project—say, less than a month or two—you can typically receive a refund should you cancel your hosting within 60 days. Some companies offer 30-day money-back guarantees, others offer 90-day money-back guarantees. Once again, it's beneficial to do your homework.
Your domain is your business card on the World Wide Web. It should be as simple and at the same time as distinctive as possible, so that interested parties can easily find your content on the internet. An internet address ideally consists of a short and memorable domain name and a distinctive top-level domain (also known as an extension), for example .co.uk or .com. A domain is structured as follows: www.desireddomain.com.
Web hosting services offer varying amounts of monthly data transfers, storage, email, and other features. Even how you pay (month-to-month payments vs. annual payments) can be radically different, too, so taking the time to plot exactly what your company needs for online success is essential. Many of these companies also offer reseller hosting services, which let you go into business for yourself, offering hosting to your own customers without requiring you to spin up your own servers.
Once you decide you price range, you need to consider how long you'll need web hosting. If it's a short-term project—say, less than a month or two—you can typically receive a refund should you cancel your hosting within 60 days. Some companies offer 30-day money-back guarantees, others offer 90-day money-back guarantees. Once again, it's beneficial to do your homework.

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If you're not sure of the type of hosting your business needs, you might want to start small, with shared Web hosting. You can always graduate to a more robust, feature-rich package of, say, VPS hosting or even dedicated hosting in the future. Unfortunately, some hosts don't offer all hosting types. Consider how much you expect to grow your website, and how soon, before you commit to anything longer than a one-year plan. It's worth spending the time up front to make sure that the host you select with is able to provide the growth you envision for your site, as switching web hosting providers midstream is not a trivial undertaking.

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If you register a domain with Bluehost when signing up for a hosting account, there is a domain fee that is non-refundable. This not only covers our costs, but ensures that you won't lose your domain name. Regardless of the status of your hosting service, you'll be free to manage it, transfer it after any required lock periods, or simply point it elsewhere at your convenience. You retain ownership of your domain until the end of its registration period unless you elect to extend it.

Domain names can be used in a number of ways. Direct visitors to your website’s home page or use complementary domains to send them to specific areas of your website ( e.g. yourcompany.jobs for a careers page). Or, forward a custom domain to an existing social media account, like your Twitter profile or Periscope channel. With a domain name you can even set up custom email addresses like yourname@yoursite.social, which can be used to conduct business or communicate with your followers. More.


When it comes to server operating systems, Linux is typically the default option. Still, some services offer a choice of Linux or Windows hosting. If you have specific server-side applications that require Windows, such as SQL Server or a custom application written in .NET, then you need to make sure your web host has Windows hosting. But don't let the idea of a Linux host intimidate you. Nowadays, most web hosts offer a graphical interface or a control panel to simplify server administration and website management. Instead of typing at the command line, you'll click easily identifiable icons.
Shared Hosting - Our Shared Hosting is the perfect solution if you're starting a new site, have a lower traffic/growing site or have a small personal site or blog. Our Shared Hosting is extremely user-friendly thanks to the award-winning cPanel control panel. Whether this is your first website or you've hosted a hundred sites, you'll love cPanel. Use its intuitive graphical interface to manage your websites, files, domains, databases and more! Use our Shared Hosting to host Drupal, WordPress Joomla or any number of other software options!
This special offer gives you 25% off for a period of twelve (12) months when you rent a VPS Cloud RAM 1, VPS Cloud RAM 2 or VPS Cloud RAM 3 server for any new orders (excluding renewals) with a minimum 12-month subscription, and up-front payment of the total price applicable to the subscription duration. Offer valid for orders placed between 20th January 2020, 11:00 GMT, and 30th January, 14:00 GMT. Offer valid subject to the availability of the server chosen, with the time at which the order is processed by OVHcloud used as proof in the event of any disputes. VPS Cloud RAM 1 at a price of €6.74 ex. VAT/month previously  €8.99 ex. VAT/month, VPS Cloud RAM 2 at the price of €12.74 ex. VAT/month previously  €16.99 ex. VAT/month, VPS Cloud RAM 3 at the price of €23.24 ex. VAT/month previously  €30.99 ex. VAT/month. Offer valid while stocks last. The prices displayed are only valid for the first twelve (12) months of the subscription. VPS renewals will subsequently be charged at the prices and under the conditions displayed on the renewal date, on the website www.ovhcloud.com. Cannot be used in conjunction with any other offers applicable to the service. To subscribe, you will need to accept the OVHcloud contractual conditions. Prices are rounded up or down after the discount percentage is applied, so the discounted price may vary.

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Managed WordPress Hosting - While you absolutely can host WordPress on our Shared Hosting, our Managed WordPress Hosting service was designed from the ground up specifically to power your WordPress sites. You get pre-configured WordPress security and performance (20X faster Turbo Servers) right out of the box! Your account also comes loaded with features like a free personal Jetpack license, automated, daily WordPress backups, WordPress staging, WP-CLI and more!
Originally, our SwiftServers started with Solid State Drives (SSDs). We were actually one of the very first hosts to offer SSDs. Unlike old fashioned hard disk drives (HDDs) that use old fashioned spinning disks to access information, SSDs use flash technology to improve page loads by up to 300%. Each of our Web Hosting solutions includes SSDs for free!
By definition, a domain name is simply a human readable form of an IP address. In function it is the destination that you type into a web browser in order to visit a website, such a www.google.com. Metaphorically, it is very similar to how you would scroll to a contact in your cell phone rather than manually dialing the person by entering their full phone number; the phone number would be an IP address and the saved contact would be a domain name. Always buy a domain with a reputable domain registrar.
To host a website on the internet, an individual or company would need their own computer or server.[7] As not all companies had the budget or expertise to do this, web hosting services began to offer to host users' websites on their own servers, without the client needing to own the necessary infrastructure required to operate the website. The owners of the websites, also called webmasters, would be able to create a website that would be hosted on the web hosting service's server and published to the web by the web hosting service.
Why? Because word of mouth only gets you so far in the internet era. People discover new businesses—even local business—via Bing, Google, and Yahoo. The days when they'd just look you up in the yellow pages are long gone. If you don't have a sharable website address, your chances of building online word of mouth via social networking plummet, too. In other words, no website, no discoverability, no money. Of course, web hosting isn't just for businesses. You may want to host a personal website or blog, too. Either way, the services here have you covered.

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The availability of a website is measured by the percentage of a year in which the website is publicly accessible and reachable via the Internet. This is different from measuring the uptime of a system. Uptime refers to the system itself being online. Uptime does not take into account being able to reach it as in the event of a network outage.[citation needed] A hosting provider's Service Level Agreement (SLA) may include a certain amount of scheduled downtime per year in order to perform maintenance on the systems. This scheduled downtime is often excluded from the SLA timeframe, and needs to be subtracted from the Total Time when availability is calculated. Depending on the wording of an SLA, if the availability of a system drops below that in the signed SLA, a hosting provider often will provide a partial refund for time lost. How downtime is determined changes from provider to provider, therefore reading the SLA is imperative.[11] Not all providers release uptime statistics.[12] Most hosting providers will guarantee at least 99.9% uptime which will allow for 43m of downtime per month, or 8h 45m of downtime per year.
One's website is placed on the same server as many other sites, ranging from a few sites to hundreds of websites. Typically, all domains may share a common pool of server resources, such as RAM and the CPU. The features available with this type of service can be quite basic and not flexible in terms of software and updates. Resellers often sell shared web hosting and web companies often have reseller accounts to provide hosting for clients.
A domain name is the name of your website or your website address. It's the place where users will find you on the Internet and it's unique to you or your business. Each domain name is made up of two parts. For example, our own domain name is names.co.uk, the first part is the name we chose 'names' and the second part is the extension 'co.uk'. Before domain names, web addresses were made up of a long string of numbers.

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You can also host your website on WordPress.com, but that's different from the kind of hosting mentioned above. WordPress.com uses the same code from WordPress.org, but it hides the server code and handles the hosting for you. In that sense, it resembles entries in our online site builder roundup. It's a simpler but less flexible and customizable way to approach WordPress hosting. It's definitely easier, but if you want to tinker and adjust and optimize every aspect of your site, it might not be for you.
The user gets his or her own Web server and gains full control over it (user has root access for Linux/administrator access for Windows); however, the user typically does not own the server. One type of dedicated hosting is self-managed or unmanaged. This is usually the least expensive for dedicated plans. The user has full administrative access to the server, which means the client is responsible for the security and maintenance of his own dedicated server.

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Allows clients to become web hosts themselves. Resellers could function, for individual domains, under any combination of these listed types of hosting, depending on who they are affiliated with as a reseller. Resellers' accounts may vary tremendously in size: they may have their own virtual dedicated server to a colocated server. Many resellers provide a nearly identical service to their provider's shared hosting plan and provide the technical support themselves.

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Because web hosting services host websites belonging to their customers, online security is an important concern. When a customer agrees to use a web hosting service, they are relinquishing control of the security of their site to the company that is hosting the site. The level of security that a web hosting service offers is extremely important to a prospective customer and can be a major consideration when considering which provider a customer may choose.[13]

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WordPress Support WordPress is an online website creation tool. It is a powerful blogging and website content management system, which is a convenient way to create and manage website. WordPress powers over 25% of websites on the internet. Most hosting providers will tell you right away if their plans are WordPress-compatible or not. The simple requirements for hosting your WordPress websites include: PHP version 7 or greater; MySQL version 5.6 or greater.
A VPS runs its own copy of an operating system (OS), and customers may have superuser-level access to that operating system instance, so they can install almost any software that runs on that OS. For many purposes they are functionally equivalent to a dedicated physical server, and being software-defined, are able to be much more easily created and configured. They are priced much lower than an equivalent physical server. However, as they share the underlying physical hardware with other VPSes, performance may be lower, depending on the workload of any other executing virtual machines.[1]

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This special offer gives you 25% off for a period of twelve (12) months when you rent a VPS Cloud RAM 1, VPS Cloud RAM 2 or VPS Cloud RAM 3 server for any new orders (excluding renewals) with a minimum 12-month subscription, and up-front payment of the total price applicable to the subscription duration. Offer valid for orders placed between 20th January 2020, 11:00 GMT, and 30th January, 14:00 GMT. Offer valid subject to the availability of the server chosen, with the time at which the order is processed by OVHcloud used as proof in the event of any disputes. VPS Cloud RAM 1 at a price of €6.74 ex. VAT/month previously  €8.99 ex. VAT/month, VPS Cloud RAM 2 at the price of €12.74 ex. VAT/month previously  €16.99 ex. VAT/month, VPS Cloud RAM 3 at the price of €23.24 ex. VAT/month previously  €30.99 ex. VAT/month. Offer valid while stocks last. The prices displayed are only valid for the first twelve (12) months of the subscription. VPS renewals will subsequently be charged at the prices and under the conditions displayed on the renewal date, on the website www.ovhcloud.com. Cannot be used in conjunction with any other offers applicable to the service. To subscribe, you will need to accept the OVHcloud contractual conditions. Prices are rounded up or down after the discount percentage is applied, so the discounted price may vary.

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